From the Safavid period till now, the beauty and reputation of the zarbaft and zarbaaft carpet has been very popular. Safavid kings have sought to produce an eye-catching work that reminded the memory of Baharestan’s carpet in the views.
After some time they managed to produce a variety of simin and zarin carpets, called Zarbaaft. zarbaaft carpets are the most famous export commodities of the Safavid era, and as their name suggests, in these rugs, other than silk, there were also gold and silver materials that gave them a beautiful, eye-catching glow.
The beauty and grace of this carpet was such that every time its name came to someone’s ear, a fantastic and unbelievable image would play its part in his eyes. Even looking at the carpet for a long time did not create a sense of repetition.
How were gold and silver mixed with this carpet?
These carpets have gorgeous flowers, most of which are non-prominent (such as carpet weaving). But the difference here is that in the weave sections a few warping wires were used parallel which their color, depending on the material used, golden, silver or copper-colored looks.
The history of zarbaft and zarbaaft carpet
In the past, the people of Iran used zarbaaft fabric in addition to the production of carpets in the volume of the book, the volume of the koran, envelopes and wallcoverings.
The Achaemenid textile industry was very famous in the field of silk texture and reached a peak in the Sassanid period after a gap. During the Sassanid period, there was a lot of progress in the field of Zarbaaft fabrics, and there were great works that were kept in the great museums of the world.
After this period, weaving art of took a very complex and difficult phase to reach the real status of the Safavid period and became very promising.
Safavid kings played a significant role, so that Shah Abbas asked Zaribaf artists to emigrate to Isfahan in order to support the art, and to work towards the globalization of this art, and the artists also do their best, and had made a good work.
In the Safavid period, the most famous textile centers were in the cities of Isfahan, Tabriz, Mashhad, Kashan, Rasht, Qom, Herat and Saveh, among them, Isfahan, Kashan and Yazd were more famous and produced more eye-catching products.
It is also possible to find the name of Poland in the context of this work, which is related to the Paris International Exhibition (held in 1878). At the exhibition, the property of a Polish prince (Chartorsky) was exhibited, among which there was a beautiful zarbaft and zarbaaft carpet that at that time astonished most people.
Production of twisted wire thread of gold or silver (golabatoon)
In zarbaft and zarbaaft carpets were used twisted wire threads only in its weft and its fibre and flowers all are made of pure silk that silk give a unique beauty to it.
For the production of warped wire, they heat some gold and silver sheets and then threw them through the metal rollers to the required thickness. Then, with the appropriate tools and scissors, they made the sheets to the desired shape and wrapped around a silky yarn. The thickness of these strips is negligible and their width is about 0.3 mm. It should be noted that the thread of twisted wire is also called a golabatoon.
Experiments performed on this twist wire show a silver density of over 97%. The remainder is also made up of gold or impurities such as lead, silver ore.
History of Iranian Carpet
From the past, Iran has been one of the most prominent manifestations of the emergence and evolution of the art of designed cloth in the world. The first historical evidence is about 5,000 BC. At that time, in today’s Kurdistan region, researchers found a cloth in a container, and then (around 3,000 BC), during drilling operations near Khuzestan today, fabrics and textile tools such as spinning dents were found.
The knitting industry has very ancient fame in Iranian history. All historical periods including Achaemenids, Ilkhanis, Seljukis and of course the Safavids (the birthplace of Zarbaft and Zarbaaft carpets) have been active in this field and have exported their works to various regions.
But the carpet of Zarbaft and Zarbaaft has been very impressive, ornamental, and valuable, and its reputation is well preserved. Today, the best examples and works can be seen in art and entertainment museums.
How It Is Made and a Big Question Mark
It is interesting to know that names like Zarbaft and Zari Baft are other names of this industry and exquisite product and the meaning of all these terms is the cloth that has been made with gold.
A question that nobody has yet succeeded in providing a clear answer is that, given the long history of the industry, how the use of wire ropes is possible, and more importantly, in the distant times, how has 97% of gold been obtained? In addition, all the colors used in the carpets were completely natural; colors derived from nature, also called herbaceous colors. These colors are usually taken from leaves of plants or trunks of trees or other parts of plants and nature.
Walnut shells, turmeric, rhubarb root, red seed, pomegranate, saffron, sumac leaf, nile and sparak were used in natural colors which their full information is provided.